How to make money from stocks

To be successful with stocks, you need to know how to profit from them Check out the main ways to make money with this type of investment:

  • Appreciation and decline: observing market fluctuations to buy and sell shares at the right time is the best-known way to make money on the stock exchange. Some investors even specialize in day trading, the practice of buying and selling an asset on the same day. For this to work, they need to be aware of variations at all times.
  • Dividendsconsist of the distribution of profits made periodically to shareholders. Many investors, unlike day traders, prioritize shares of companies that pay good dividends, not focusing as much on gaining from the rises and falls in bond values.
  • JCP (Interest on Equity): just like dividends, they are a type of income distributed by companies, with the difference that they are independent of the profit generated by the company. In addition, as it is registered as an expense, the organization gains tax exemption, which may increase the amount transferred to the shareholder.

Types of actions

One way to classify shares is taking into account what they offer to investors:

  • Common shares (ON) : give the investor voting power, allowing him to have a voice in the company’s decisions, in addition to paying dividends.
  • Preferred shares (PN) : the investor receives a larger share of the company’s profits and earns the right to receive earnings before other shareholders. However, there is no voting power in the assemblies.
  • Units: stock packages composed of assets of different types, such as two common and two preferences. They usually have good chances of recovery and guarantee the receipt of earnings.

Another type of classification considers the size of the issuing company and the financial volume it trades on the Stock Exchange:

  • Blue chips : bonds issued by large companies, which move high values ​​on the B3, such as Petrobrás, Banco do Brasil, Ambev and Vale. They are usually safer and more liquid, because of the ease of buying and selling.
  • Mid Caps: stocks of mid-sized companies, which move expressive values, but lower than those of blues chips. In many cases, they have a higher upside potential than the shares of large companies.
  • Small Caps : assets of smaller capitalization companies. They are known as cheap, high-risk stocks, which can bring both big profits and big losses. As they are issued by lesser-known companies, they have less liquidity, as the number of people interested in the purchase is smaller.

Costs for investing in shares

When investing in shares, it is necessary to be aware of the costs of this type of investment. In addition to taxes paid to the government, there are three types of fees:

  • Custody fee charged monthly by brokers and serves to cover the company’s expenses with B3. Some brokers do not apply this fee.
  • Brokerage fee charged by brokers for each transaction of purchase and sale of shares on the Exchange. It can be fixed or a percentage of the transaction amount. Some brokers do not apply this fee.
  • Fees: fixed fees charged by B3 per transaction. Values ​​vary according to the type of operation, the type of investor and the amount invested.

investment funds

Mutual fund is a collective type of investment, which gathers the money of several investors with similar profiles.

The sum of the contributions of each investor forms the fund’s equity, which is managed by an investment manager . The role of this professional is to allocate the participants’ capital in order to obtain the best possible return for everyone.

At brokerages, funds are divided and traded in shares. Thus, if an investor wants to invest R$80,000 and a fund with shares that cost R$10, he will have to buy 8,000 shares.

Investment fund fees

Relying on a specialized manager to decide where your money will be invested comes at a cost, which comes in the form of fees in investment funds. The main ones are:

  • Administration fee : is the payment for the work of the fund manager. It is an annual percentage applied to the total invested (capital + earnings).
  • Performance fee : rate provided for in investment funds that follow economic indices, such as the CDI, the Selic rate or the IPCA. If the manager obtains income that exceeds these indexes, it gains additional value for its good performance.
  • Exit Fee : This fee is typically charged by older funds and may be considered abusive. It focuses on the costista’s departure from the fund, whether due to redemption or portability.
  • Loading Fee: Also charged by older funds and considered abusive. It is charged whenever a new contribution is made.

Types of investment funds

There are several types of investment funds , aimed at different investor profiles. Know the main ones below.

  • Fixed income funds : these are funds in which at least 80% of the group’s equity must be invested in fixed income assets, such as Tesouro Direto and bank assets. Among the most popular is the DI Fund , which tracks the DI Rate variation of the interbank market.
  • Equity funds: seek to allocate at least 67% of their resources in equities. They are ideal for those who want to start investing in the Stock Exchange , as it is a way to experience variable income with the help of a specialized professional.
  • Real Estate Investment Funds (FII): variable income funds that invest in real estate, real estate securities and specific categories of projects (offices, shopping malls, hospitals, schools, etc.). They became very popular for distributing rental income, generating a monthly or semi-annual income to the investor.
  • Multimarket funds: have multiple assets in their portfolio, combining fixed and variable income to obtain the best returns for moderate or bold investors. Due to the variety of options, the manager has more freedom to allocate resources and pursue more satisfactory income for the group.
  • Foreign exchange funds: invest at least 80% of the group’s equity in foreign currency. The most common are those that invest in the US dollar. They are ideal for those who plan to travel abroad and want to protect themselves from a possible rise in the price.
  • Gold funds: invest at least 80% of the group’s equity in gold reserves. As gold remains positive in relation to other assets, even in times of crisis, it is a highly sought-after alternative by investors to diversify the portfolio.
  • ETFs (Exchange Traded Fund) : also known as index funds, they are funds that track the performance of benchmark indicators, such as the Ibovespa..
  • Private pension funds: they are the destination of those who save with a focus on retirement or on medium and long-term projects. They can be fixed income or multimarket funds.
  • FOFs (Founds of Founds): In this option, you can put your money in several funds at the same time with a single application. It is an interesting way to simultaneously access various fixed-income funds, sharesmultimarket, among others.
  • FIDC (Credit Rights Investment Fund): also called Receivables Fund, it is a fixed-income fund based on debts owed by customers to companies through payment in installments, such as checks and credit card installments. When the customer makes the payment, the money goes to the investor (with interest), rather than to the company.
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